Error message

Deprecated function: Function create_function() is deprecated in GeSHi->_optimize_regexp_list_tokens_to_string() (line 4736 of /home/sites/site100029201/web/

Create screenshots of a web page using Python and QtWebKit

Update 2009-10-03:

For further development and improvements, contact me or have a look at this public github repository created by Adam Nelson.

Update 2010-04-12:

If you need flash support, you should have a look at the current github version of this script at mentioned above. We've extend the script a few month ago.

From time to time you may want to create a screenshot of a web page from command line, for example if you wish to create thumbnails for your web-application. So you might search for such a program and find tools like webkit2png, which is for Mac OS X only, or khtml2png, which requires a lot of KDE stuff to be installed on your server.

But since Qt Software, formerly known als Trolltech, integrated Safari's famous rendering engine WebKit (which is based on Konqueror's khtml engine) into its framework, we are now able to make use of it with the help of some Python and PyQt4.


If you are in a hurry, click here to get a full-featured version of

I assume that you have some basic knowledge of python. If you run into problems with the Qt part of this tutorial, I suggest to have a look at the class documentation, first. Please note that Qt is a C++ framework, and most of the example code in this documentation has not been ported. So it might be helpful if you have some basic knowledge of C++, too.

Requirements: Webkit and PyQt4 (packages libqt4-webkit and python-qt4 when you're using Intrepid Ibex).

So, run your favourite editor (vim, of course) and start to enter some python code. First, we will have to organize some imports:

  1. #!/usr/bin/env python
  2. import sys # required to exit this program
  3. import signal # required to catch CTRL-C (I'll explain this later)
  5. # Some of the PyQt libs
  6. from PyQt4.QtCore import *
  7. from PyQt4.QtGui import *
  8. from PyQt4.QtWebKit import *

Qt is highly event based (called "slots" and "signals"), so we have to prepare a "slot" which gets called when the page has been loaded completely:

  1. def onLoadFinished(result):
  2. print "loadFinished(%s)" % str(result)
  3. sys.exit(0) # this is the moment when we have to quit normally

Even if we intend to write a CLI based application, QtWebkit requires a GUI in the background. This is why we have to use QApplication instead of QCoreApplication. And because we will not have any visible controls, we should ensure that we can still quit this application using CTRL-C (this is why we have to import signal):

  1. app = QApplication(sys.argv)
  2. signal.signal(signal.SIGINT, signal.SIG_DFL)

Now we can create a QWebPage-Object without any exception or segmentation fault. Connect it with our "onLoadFinished"-slot and load the url you want to make a screenshot of (here I'm using Google):

  1. webpage = QWebPage()
  2. webpage.connect(webpage, SIGNAL("loadFinished(bool)"), onLoadFinished)
  3. webpage.mainFrame().load(QUrl(""))

If you run this application now, you'll see... nothing. onLoadFinished might be called, but the result will be "False". This is because Qt is so extremly event-based, and there is still no main loop to handle these events. So finally you have to start your QApplication:


If you execute this now, the output should be:


Good, the page is loaded! The next step is to render this into a file by expanding "onLoadFinished" (this means: all the code from now on have to be INSIDE of "onLoadFinished"). At first, we should ensure that we do not proceed if we got an error:

  1. <span style="color:lightgray">def onLoadFinished(result):
  2. <strike>print "loadFinished(%s)" % str(result)</strike></span>
  3. if not result:
  4. print "Request failed"
  5. sys.exit(1)

Otherwise, we should enlarge the viewport (that is our virtual browser window) to the desired size. If you want to create a picture of the whole page, you should use the "preferred" size of the contents:

  1. <span style="color:lightgray"> print "Request failed"
  2. sys.exit(1)</span>
  4. # Set the size of the (virtual) browser window
  5. webpage.setViewportSize(webpage.mainFrame().contentsSize()

And finally, render this into an QImage-object and store this into a file:

  1. <span style="color:lightgray"> # Set the size of the (virtual) browser window
  2. webpage.setViewportSize(webpage.mainFrame().contentsSize()</span>
  4. # Paint this frame into an image
  5. image = QImage(webpage.viewportSize(), QImage.Format_ARGB32)
  6. painter = QPainter(image)
  7. webpage.mainFrame().render(painter)
  8. painter.end()
  10. sys.exit(0) # quit this application

Done. Pretty easy, isn't it? Oh, wait! QWebPage depends an QtGui, and QtGui depends on a running X server (at least on Unix systems). So how can we make use of this on a headless server machine? The answer is Xvfb, a framebuffer based X server, originally designed for testing purposes. Of course, it requires some X-libs and fonts, too (how should a page be rendered without any fonts?), but it does not have so much overhead like the real XOrg-server and don't need to be running all the time. Just call the script this way:

$ xvfb-run --server-args="-screen 0, 640x480x24" python

The screen size doesn't matter, but the color depth of 24 bit is important. Otherwise, the resulting screenshot would be limited to 256 colors. For more options, have a look at the man-Pages of 'Xvfb' and 'xvfb-run'.

Last, but not least, I'll provide you two versions of this script. is exactly the result of this tutorial, while is a much more improved version with command line arguments and coded in OOP style (see the github repository for the most recent version).

Update 2009-04-01 Here's another guy who had the same idea earlier than me.


I can reproduce issue #2, although I 'm very busy at the moment and will not be able to analyse this at the moment.

Problem #1 works for me. Please try to modify the script near line 63 and report the results:

self.__loading = True
while self.__loading:

Keep in mind that this is Python, so don't mix up the indentation.

Update: Problem #2 is because the page does not report a "contentSize", and the reason is that the site uses a frameset. You can override the contentSize with "--geometry WIDTH HEIGH", but this results in an empty image. As I said I'll have a look at this as soon as I'm not so busy anymore.

If you want to hack this yourself: I assume that you have to define the geometry of self._page or self._page.mainFrame() at some point before the rendering.

The bug described by Alex seems to be reported here:

This has to be fixed by the Ubuntu people. However, we're testing a workaround that tries to determine the PID of the active xvfb-run-instance at the end of the script and then kill itself with signal 9:

m = re.match(".*xvfb-run\.(\d+).*", os.environ['XAUTHORITY'])
if m:
os.kill(int(, 9)

This code has to be injected near line 203, just before "sys.exit(0)". It requires you to import the module "re" (regular expressions) at the beginning of the script.

I will not add this to as I'm really convinced that this bug has to be fixed in Ubuntu's xvfb pacakge.

big, big thanks for such solution. I run on exactly the same problem i was wondering how to solve it quickly. Thanks for a good start with that.

Alex, I'll reply to you by mail. If we find a solution, I'll update the article.

Thanks for taking time to look at it Roland. The part I changed is the part that handles starting Xvfb. This is what I have:

if options.xvfb:
# Start 'xvfb' instance by replacing the current process
newArgs = ["xvfb-run", "-a", "--server-args=-screen 0 1024x768x24", "python"]
for i in range(0, len(sys.argv)):
if sys.argv[i] not in ["-x", "--xvfb"]:
logging.debug("Executing %s" % " ".join(newArgs))
os.execvp(newArgs[0], newArgs)
raise RuntimeError("Failed to execute '%s'" % newArgs[0])

I've added the "-a" and the "python" arguments to xvfb-run. If I don't have "-a," it will fail to start xvfb because it's already running with that server id. If I don't have "python" the command passed through xvfb-run is incorrect.

I have tried it with your original script with no changes and Xvfb still doesn't die. Perhaps, it's some environment problem? I noticed that I have to use kill -9 to get the Xvfb process to die. A simple kill won't work.

This sounds strange because the application exits itself immediatly after the image is written to disk. Might be a problem with xvfb-run.

I've read in your blog that you modified the script. This should not be neccessary when you make the file executable and run it like this:

./ --xvfb [...]

Please try this and tell me if it helps. If not, we can try to change the code so that it starts Xvfb by itself and kills the process before exit.

Roland, I am having trouble using this script. All of the screenshots turn out fine, but it seems like the Xvfb servers are not killed or exited properly. So, as I create screenshots, Xvfb processes are left behind every time the script runs. Do you have any thoughts why this might be happening?

@zz: Kang's post is from September 16th, mine is from December. So if there is somebody to blame for stealing code it's me, but I swear that I never saw Kang's script earlier :-)

Hi, always fails for me with "failed to load":

# ./ -x -o test.png --debug
DEBUG:root:Executing xvfb-run --server-args=-screen 0, 640x480x24 ./ -o test.png --debug
DEBUG:root:Initializing class WebkitRenderer
DEBUG:root:render(, timeout=0)
DEBUG:root:Processing result
ERROR:root:Failed to load

The simple version works fine, I have written a .sh wrapper for it.

Although it seems to fail on some sites, e.g.:

QPainter::begin: Paint device returned engine == 0, type: 3
QPainter::renderHints: Painter must be active to set rendering hints

I'm using libqt4-webkit 4.4.3-2, python-qt4 4.4.2-4 on Debian 5.0.

As per Roland's comment, I moved this to a public repository so people can collaborate on this.

This includes Coles modifications.

Feel free to make updates, fork, etc...

I'm caught between this and simply calling websnap or CutyCapt as a subprocess. Anyone struggling with xvfb-run might try adding -f to the command list as this stops xvfb complaing it can't start the server.

Good Day everyone,

thank you for your effort, the idea looks really nice.

i will start a website soon, in which i need a snapshot functionality, so i landed in this page.

my website as i got from the host, will be hosted on linux and supports python,

MY PROBLEM :) is that i come from windows background with eperience in ASP, and little bit PHP (which i will use for the website).

questions are:
what are the pre requirments to use your project on linux host, python, and php support, (i read things about Qt but i dont know what is it).

and the second question is: are there some steps how to setup this on the host and use it from within PHP.

thank you very much and accept my best regards,

I made some modifications to your script and thought I would share:
And the diff:

Added a simple networkAccessManager to handle bad ssl certificates (we use self-signed certs on some pages I wanted to thumbnail). It could easily be extended to do something more intelligent, but it works for us.

Added another option for aspect ratio: crop. This renders the full page the same as expand, then crops to the desired size. This gives better results for short pages like google than setting the browser size and using ignore aspect ratio.

If anyone knows how to do a higher quality resize in QT I would be interested to hear. It seems to be doing simple linear interpolation which gives very poor results especially for text.

Hi Luay,

beside of Python you should have installed the "webkit" library of the qt package and the PyQt4 package for python. Beyond that you'll need an X11-Server - "Xvfb" should be sufficient for a headless maschine.

I suggest to use your distributions package management to install these dependencies. If you tell me what distribution you are using I might be able to tell you the package names.

Qt is a library for GUI programming which comes with it's own HTML rendering engine, webkit. Please have a look at Wikipedia for further information.

Good luck!

Interesting... as wkhtmltopdf is using the same library I wonder how they do. Think it's time to have a look at their code.

Riccardo, this should not make a problem since _on_ssl_errors() (git-version of should accept every ssl certificate out there. If this is not the case, can you name an URL to test this behaviour?

wkhtmltopdf 0.9 can be obtained with a modified qt which doesn't need to talk to an X server ... thus you can avoid mucking around with xvfb.

Just a thought! Then you can convert from there to PNG or whatever ...


Your local X Server (or xvfb) has to be able to render those characters. It seems that the system lacks of the requires fonts.

How can I make locale letters appear ok in generated images? Now I just got "boxes" insteat of special characters. Try to capture for example.


thank you. i'm using the same approach. but i want the captured picture be exactly the size of the web page. if i use your approach, the screen shot will be the size of the web frame, and i often see the scroll bar, because the frame is smaller than the web page.

so how can i make a screen shot of the entire web page?


I think this might be a problem with the size of the "virtual desktop". Maybe I have a chance to spend more time with this script in the near future.

Hello Roland,

thank you very much for the response, do you know a host name which supports such packages,

i asked the host i suppose to host with, and they have absolutely no idee :)

Thank you,

Oh ok, I assumed you were running your own server. Sorry, I don't think I can help you in that question.

>thank you. i’m using the same approach. but i want the
>captured picture be exactly the size of the web page. if
>i use your approach, the screen shot will be the size of
>the web frame, and i often see the scroll bar, because
>the frame is smaller than the web page.

Regarding this. There seems to me to be a bug in the QWebPage::mainFrame()::contentSize method. When a page doesn't contain any child frame the method works fine, but when the mainframe does contain child frames the mainFrame will not return the proper content size.

Also i have the same issue with flash content not being renderered. I installed the 64bit alpha version of the flash player and the content gets initialized (ie i can see it downloads all the data associated with it) but never gets fully rendered.

Nevertheless, thank you very much

I just released a ruby-package to generate thumbshots using your script:

@Luay has great support for Python stuff - you could try them.

This script ROCKS!

I got this working finally and it renders great. Wish I could make it faster. I had this working on a Mac before and it was quite fast. Now running on Linux (yea!)...

anyway, I can't get Flash to render. Any ideas? I am pretty certain flash is installed on the server, but maybe need to put it somewhere.

This works:

__self = True

class WebkitRenderer(QObject):

# Initializes the QWebPage object and registers some slots
def __init__(self):
def __on_load_finished(result):
def __on_load_started():

__self = self
logging.debug("Initializing class %s", self.__class__.__name__)
self._page = QWebPage()
self.connect(self._page, SIGNAL("loadFinished(bool)"), __on_load_finished)
self.connect(self._page, SIGNAL("loadStarted()"), __on_load_started)

Does anyone know how to get this to display Flash plugins?

I've tried enabling plugins in the script and also using Adobe Flash 32bit and 64bit or swfdec and gnash. None of them seem to work.

For those of you who might be getting the error:
"QPainter::begin: Paint device returned engine == 0, type: 3"

There are a couple possible reasons:
- The page is greater than 32,768 pixels (2^15 px) in any dimension (
- The page is framed and messing with the image dimensions.

Hope this saves someone a massive headache.

Is there an easy way to fire this multiple times from a single script? For example, a crawler that takes snapshots of all of the pages that it visits? Other than the obvious commands.getoutput() of course :)

Many thanks!

Sorry, I don't have any. I have no experiences with client-side certificates, and at the moment I'm too busy to learn about it. As I said, if you could get a C example from some Qt guys how to use client-side certificates with QtWebkit I would be able to port that code into the python script.

Pyside: Yesterday I've heard about this project for the first time. Adam and me are going to support this library some day (

Edit: I had a short view at QSslSocket. What you want is a "localCertificate". A assume you have to create your own implementation of NetworkAccessManager that creates a QSslSocket with your local certificate and assign this manager to the QWebPage instance - but I'm not sure about this. Maybe there is a "global socket factory" or something like this that may be modified.

Great article! One note: In the second paragraph, "into it’s framework" should be "into its framework" (possessive). Thanks!

Roland: Thank you!

Hi Roland, thanks again for your help. Searching the web I find pyside, where are present Qt written in python. What I don't understand is at what lever(webpage,network) and where set the certificate. QSslSocket ( allow to specify certificate but how to connect to WebPage or to NetworkAccessManager? Another way could be is to call userAgentForUrl but it's not clear for me how to use it (
Any ideas?

At the moment I'm still to busy to package this for PyPI by myself, but I don't mind if you do so!


Would you consider getting this script onto PyPI as well as GitHub, BitBucket, or Google Code?

It's the best script I've come across for this job and it would be great to see it built out by the community. If you don't want to do you mind if I do? I'd like to use this in a few places and if it were available from PyPI it would be great.


Hi everyone,

Regarding the issue with Xvfb staying up, it's enough to pass "-terminate" to the server args. So, line 154 would look like:
newArgs = ["xvfb-run", "--server-args=-terminate -screen 0, 640x480x24", sys.argv[0]]

However, xvfb-run is already trying to kill Xvfb, so using this will trigger a warning message from xvfb-run.

An option to skip this message would be to skip xvfb-run (it's just a simple shell script anyway) and call Xvfb directly. As for xvfb, one of the following could be done:
- change xvfb-run to use -terminate instead of issuing a kill (recommended?)
- change xvfb-run to use kill -9


Hi Roland,

Thanks for this excellent piece of work. I integrated it in my Django based website. Somewhere in 2007 I had a version of khtml2png2 working, but after a switch to mod_wsgi and various server upgrades I couldn't get it working anymore.

I ran into some xvfb issues however. When running a test script on the command line of my server your script runs without error messages using --xvfb, but when I run it from the mod_wsgi environment it generates an error message: Xvfb failed to start.
when running using --display :0.0 it works from the wsgi script, but with an error message:style cannot be used together with the GTK_Qt engine. Anyway the last one works for me.

(Ubuntu 9.04)

# testscript
import os, sys, subprocess

'--display', ':0.0',
'-g', '1024', '768',


Hi VidJa,

Thanks for this report. I'll have a look at it later.

Update: I think this is an issue of mod_wsgi. Sadly, xvfb-run does not provide some sort of --verbose flag. Can you run it with "strace" (by modifying

Maybe xvfb-run does not have the permission to write the authority-file? The man page says that this file is written to the directory defined by TMPDIR or /tmp.

Another reason might be that the memory is limited by mod_wsgi.


I am having the same exact issue as Hubert. Looks like something with the Debian install of Qt4 makes the simple script work, but reports "Failed to load" messages on all pages. I debugged for about 2 hours, but I am not Qt expert, and I only got "Failed to load" messages, indefinite hanging, or blank renders.

I documented on the github repo:

Nice work though, looks excellent!

-Ben Standefer

I got the same problem that Hubert reported in March :
# ./ -x -o test.png –debug
DEBUG:root:Executing xvfb-run –server-args=-screen 0, 640×480x24 ./ -o test.png –debug
DEBUG:root:Initializing class WebkitRenderer
DEBUG:root:render(, timeout=0)
DEBUG:root:Processing result
ERROR:root:Failed to load

script version is from github.
my python version is : Python 2.5.2

le webkit2png-simple works fine.
And I think i nailed the problem down to the callbacks not being called back....

__on_load_started is never called, it seems...

if i change
- self.connect(self._page, SIGNAL("loadStarted()"), self.__on_load_started)
+ self.connect(self._page, SIGNAL("loadStarted()"), onLoadStarted)
with :
+def onLoadStarted():
+ print "load started"

I get a nice log :
DEBUG:root:Initializing class WebkitRenderer
DEBUG:root:render(, timeout=20)
load started
ERROR:root:Request timed out

So, is it because my python is too old ?
does object method-callbacks works ?

Strange, two people reporting the same issue. Ben, what Python and Qt versions are you using?

I would love to include a version of this in Selenium, but the GPL prevents me from including it in the project. (Selenium is Apache2-licensed.) Would you be willing re-license as MIT/BSD/Apache2?

Sorry, but this is not possible due to the restrictions of PyQt4:

Like Qt, PyQt v4 is available on all platforms under a variety of licenses including the GNU GPL (v2 and v3) and a commercial license. Unlike Qt, PyQt v4 is not available under the LGPL. You can purchase the commercial version of PyQt.

I'm having a problem when a website has a confirmation alert type window asking if you really want to leave the page (ok,cancel). The script just hangs. The screenshot is not saved and the script doesn't terminate after the timeout or anything. I guess it is unable to close the browser because of the alert? Is there a way to deal with this situation?

Hi. This is in response to Cole's question about resize quality. It was posted a while back, but others may have the same issue.

Quality is greatly reduced when shrinking down the screenshots becuase it uses poor interpolation. If you add a parameter to the image.scaled() function call you can increase the resized screen capture quality.
By default it uses the "Qt.FastTransformation" mode.
If you manually set the the mode to "Qt.SmoothTransformation" you'll get a much nicer looking image. I tested this with a script taking 15 screenshots and sizing them down to a max of 400x400 and maintaining the aspect ratio. I timed the script and it actually ran 1 second faster with the SmoothTransformation as compared to the FastTransformation. I'm sure this was only faster because of fluctuations in page load times, but obviously the processing time change from fast to smooth was negligible in processing 15 screen shots.

Here's my change:

mode = Qt.SmoothTransformation

image = image.scaled(options.scale[0], options.scale[1], ratio, mode)